RESISTÊNCIA À RODAGEM: A OVELHA NEGRA DO CONSUMO

Fala-se frequentemente de fraca resistência à rodagem como argumento de venda conforme as regulamentações europeias em termos de respeito pelo ambiente. Mas de que se fala exatamente?

A resistência à rodagem é a energia dispensada aquando da deformação do pneu pelo contato do solo e pela fricção que resulta disso. Depende das propriedades viscoelásticas da borracha que se chama mais comummente histerese.

Enquadra-se no âmbito geral da resistência ao movimento que todos os veículos enfrentam (inércia, afluxo de ar, etc.).

Para um condutor que pretende reduzir o seu consumo de combustível, a resistência à rodagem é um fator chave para poupar vários depósito de combustível por ano.

Geralmente admite-se que os pneus cujo composto de borracha comporta uma densidade de sílica apresentam uma resistência à rodagem menos elevada do que os outros.

Os outros elementos importantes a ter em conta são:

  • O peso da roda (jantes + pneus): quanto mais leve é a roda, mais combustível poupa.
  • A rigidez dos flancos: quanto mais duros são os flancos, menos o pneu se deforma e menos o carro consome.
  • A qualidade do revestimento rodoviário (não modificável pelo condutor).

COMO SE MEDE A RESISTÊNCIA À RODAGEM?

Respondendo a normas muito precisas (ISO 28580), a medição da resistência à rodagem é feita a uma temperatura ambiente de 25°C. Para realizar esta medição, o laboratório utiliza um cilindro (ver à frente) no qual se aplica o pneu a testar, com uma carga e uma pressão dada.

Uma primeira medição é feita sem o pneu. Roda-se o cilindro vazio e mede-se a força necessária para aplicar este movimento. De seguida, é feita uma segunda medição com o pneu, medindo também a força necessária para fazer o cilindro rodar.

Por fim, calculando a diferença entre as duas forças, obtém-se um binário chamado resistência ao avanço, expresso em quilogramas por tonelada.

A saber:

Aquando da substituição de um pneu usado por um pneu novo, a resistência à rodagem aumenta em média 20%, o que pode representar um ligeiro aumento do consumo de combustível nos primeiros meses de utilização.

A resistência à rodagem pode flutuar ao longo de um trajeto: uma vez recauchutados os pneus, a resistência diminui.

O coeficiente de resistência permite compreender porque é que alguns condutores preferem pneus com perfis grandes, pois a resistência e as limitações são repartidas numa superfície maior, o que contribui para melhorar a longevidade do pneu.

  • Jan 21, 2020
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